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Startups want to remake the internet with blockchain

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WHAT MASS IS for Catholics, technology conferences are for geeks. Speakers at these gatherings often sound like preachers, promising a dazzling future. So it was at a blockchain conference in Berlin in March, organised by Blockstack, a startup. The enthusiasm on display echoed that of gatherings in the mid-1990s. Some speakers quoted early cyber-gurus, such as the late John Perry Barlow, author of “Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace”, and Sir Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the original web, now known as Web 1.0.

Such events seem to be heralding the birth of a new technology movement. Businesses and projects with odd names are already proliferating. They are easily confused with the many startups that have recently launched new crypto-currencies via an initial coin offering (ICO), a much-hyped form of crowdfunding. But though Blockstack and its ilk have done the same, their main aim is to use technology to make the online world a more decentralised place where people can do business “on their own terms”, in the words of Ryan Shea, co-founder of Blockstack. Again, this sounds like the sort of thing geeks said in the 1990s. Will this generation succeed where the previous one failed?

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It will not be easy. To achieve their objective, they will have to overthrow an existing digital regime, called Web 2.0, that is still going strong. But it seems to be a feature of information technology that every few decades its most profitable part becomes commoditised. In the 1970s the microprocessor radically reduced the cost of computers. In the 1990s open-source software started to dethrone Windows, Microsoft’s then-dominant operating system. Now it is the turn of data, predicts Joel Monegro of Placeholder VC, a venture-capital firm set up to bet on the trend.

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Chief engineer of small software firm in Greensboro North Carolina woke up to find his company was receiving 13,000 requests a second

Alex Hern

@alexhern

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What happens if a significant proportion of all the web traffic in Tory Burch Suede KneeHigh Boots Discount Low Cost B8s4UAf
gets directed to one server? Perhaps unsurprisingly, the answer is “that server dies a rapid death”.

Craig Hockenberry, the senior software engineer for developers Iconfactory, in the small university town of Greensboro, North Carolina, learned that the hard way. On Tuesday, he woke up to discover that the main server for his company was receiving around 13,000 requests per second, “about a third of Google’s global search traffic” – and all the traffic was coming from IP addresses located in China.

“There was also a lot of requests that looked like they were intended for CDNs, YouTube, Facebook, Twitter and other places that were not the Iconfactory,” Hockenberry said . “Clearly there was some kind problem with traffic being routed to the wrong place. The most likely candidate would, of course, be DNS.”

DNS (Domain Name System) is the system which translates web addresses, such as google.com, into an IP address, such as 74.125.224.72/. A network requires the latter to actually access a website, but if the look-up system gets confused, it can give the wrong IP address – which appears to be what happened in the Iconfactory’s case. Except that rather than one DNS server messing up, it was the server for the whole of China.

Hockenberry reports that in the end, he was forced to block all traffic coming from China in order to keep the site up and running. “I’m a big believer in the power of an open and freely accessible internet: I don’t take blocking traffic from innocent people lightly. But in this case, it’s the only thing that worked.

“If you get a DDOS like what I’ve described above, this should be the first thing you do.”

He believes his site isn’t the only one to be hit. “Other site owners are seeing Recommend Cheap Price Charlotte Olympia Suede PeepToe Pumps Buy Cheap Shop For Shop Sale Online 3Gl7KSU3nS
starting in early January. I took some comfort in knowing that Christian Louboutin Ponyhair Printed Pumps Clearance View LujRl
… But at the end of the day, every machine in China has the potential be a part of a massive DDOS attack on innocent sites. As my colleague quipped, ‘They have weaponised their entire population.’”

From the point of view of a Chinese netizen, the DNS error which took down the Iconfactory’s server was an hours-long outage. The Register reports that a similar error left users “unable to visit websites or use social media and instant messaging services as a result.”

We’ve updated our Privacy Policy to give you more control over your information and support new European data protection laws. You can review the changes .

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Solubilized liver extracellular matrix maintains primary rat hepatocyte phenotype in-vitro.

Loneker, Abigail E; Faulk, Denver M; Hussey, George S; D'Amore, Antonio; Badylak, Stephen F

Whole organ engineering and cell-based regenerative medicine approaches are being investigated as potential therapeutic options for end-stage liver failure. However, a major challenge of these strategies is the loss of hepatic specific function after hepatocytes are removed from their native microenvironment. The objective of the present study was to determine if solubilized liver extracellular matrix (ECM), when used as a media supplement, can better maintain hepatocyte phenotype compared to type I collagen alone or solubilized ECM harvested from a non- liver tissue source. Liver extracellular matrix (LECM) from four different species was isolated via liver tissue decellularization, solubilized, and then used as a media supplement for primary rat hepatocytes (PRH). The four species of LECM investigated were human, porcine, canine and rat . Cell morphology, albumin secretion, and ammonia metabolism were used to assess maintenance of hepatocyte phenotype. Biochemical and mechanical characterization of each LECM were also conducted. Results showed that PRH's supplemented with canine and porcine LECM maintained their phenotype to a greater extent compared to all other groups. PRH's supplemented with canine and porcine LECM showed increased bile production, increased albumin production, and the formation of multinucleate cells. The findings of the present study suggest that solubilized liver ECM can support in-vitro hepatocyte culture and should be considered for therapeutic and diagnostic techniques that utilize hepatocytes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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Boveris, A; Llesuy, S; Azzalis, L A; Giavarotti, L; Simon, K A; Junqueira, V B; Porta, E A; Videla, L A; Lissi, E A

1997-09-19

The influence of acute ethanol administration on the oxidative stress status of rat brain and liver was assessed by in situ spontaneous organ chemiluminescence (CL). Brain and liver CL was significantly increased after acute ethanol administration to fed rats , a response that is time-dependent and evidenced at doses higher than 1 g/kg. Ethanol-induced CL development is faster in liver compared with brain probably due to the greater ethanol metabolic capacity of the liver , whereas the net enhancement in brain light emission at 3 h after ethanol treatment is higher than that of the liver , which could reflect the greater susceptibility of brain to oxidative stress. The effect of ethanol on brain and liver CL seems to be mediated by acetaldehyde, due to its abolishment by the alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor 4-methylpyrazole and exacerbation by the aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor disulfiram. In brain, these findings were observed in the absence of changes in the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. However, the content of brain glutathione was significantly decreased by 31%, by ethanol, thus establishing an enhanced oxidative stress in this tissue.

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